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[日期:2019-06-25] ? [字体: ]
《参考消息》2006年6月20日:中国高考制度根深蒂固【美国《洛杉矶时报》6月1 8日报道】题:中国的高考使人们为升入大学作更好的准备
China's Entrance Exam Further Stacks the Deck for College Seats
By Mark Magnier, Times Staff Writer
June 18, 2006

BEIJING — Yao Yao, 18, emerged from her college entrance exam at Beijing No. 55 Middle School tired but relieved it was finally over. She had done what she could. In a few weeks, a website will reveal a single three-digit score that will determine her future.
The odds are high for Yao and the other 8.8 million Chinese high school students who pored over Chinese, math, science, art and English questions in quiet halls around the nation this month. China has only 2.6 million university seats to offer them.
Nor is this af________①process. Chinese college admissions officers don't look at your high school grades, personal interviews, recommendations or essays in making their decisions.(A)_______________________________(要是你没考好,他们也不会通融。)Everything, countless years of sacrifice and hard work,boils down to[1]this one test. Those who perform miserably have to wait another year to take the exam.
"I don't think it's a fair system," said Yao, wearing eyeglasses, a white T-shirt and a jacket wrapped around her waist. "It treats you like a number, not a person. As a Chinese saying goes, 'The winner becomes the king, the loser becomes theb________②.' "
Reformers have proposed alternatives over the years, arguing that (1)the exam and the education system built up around it place too much emphasis on rote memorization, in effect grinding creativity and individuality out of young minds.They alsofret over[2]the years of stress that young Chinese must endure in this giant game of elimination.
Few see much hope ford_______③change anytime soon, however, in part because the system is so deeplyengrained[3]:Rigorous exams have been a feature of Chinese life for more than 1,000 years, part of a Confucian system that saw official jobs allocated through awithering[4]civil service exam.
(2)At the root of its endurance is the system's perceived fairness and the safeguards it provides against corruption and backroom dealing.China hasflirted[5]with alternatives in the past. Midway through the tumultuous 1966-76 Cultural Revolution, education officials decided to break with the tradition by choosing candidates based on village and work unit recommendation, ana________④viewed as fairer and more democratic.
"It seemed like a good idea," said Tang Min, Beijing-based chief economist with the Asian Development Bank. "But the results were disastrous. Without ano________⑤standard, some got in through hanky-panky[6], making many people angry at the unfairness."(B) ______________________________(到文革结束时,中国恢复了成败在此一举的高考制度。)
China is not alone in questioning thevalueof its rigid Confucian education system. (3)Japan and South Korea have worried for years that their school systems are creating people with the wrong skills for a global economy.But China, by virtue of its size and latecomer status, is facing reform pressures more acutely than its counterparts did, economists say.
Enduring up to six hours of homework andcram[7]school classes a day for years also threatens to heighten anxiety levels and rob students of theiry_______⑥,experts say. At Beijing's Sunshine Heart Mental Consulting Center, the number of calls to its hotline and face-to-face consultations exceeded 100 a day in the weeks before the exam. Among the common exam-related symptoms its workers see are irregular heartbeats, eating disorders, sleeplessness, short-term memory loss and shaking hands.
Nor are children the only ones feeling the heat. One survey found that 76% of parents suffered from their own version of pre-exama________⑦.
"Parents end up feeling it's their fault if their kids fail," said Wang Ying, a psychiatrist and head of the counseling hotline. "They can end up at least as nervous as the kids."
(4)In their quest to push the next generation along, no gesture is deemed too small.Parents rent expensive hotel rooms and hire chefs to make favorite dishes in a bid to eke[8] the very best out of the test takers.
In extreme cases, teensbuckle[9]under the pressure. A survey in the state-run China Daily newspaper last year listed suicide as the fifth biggest killer in the nation after lung cancer, traffic accidents, heart disease and other illnesses, with exams_______⑧cited as a significant cause.
The market economy has created more private colleges, which over time should spur competition to attract good students through moref________⑨enrollment systems, education specialists say. China is also developing a vocational training system that should further ease the pressure. And employers are beginning to demand more creative graduates.
[1]boil down to归结为
[2]fret (over) v.为……烦恼;焦虑
[3]engrained adj.根深蒂固的;彻底的
[4]withering adj..毁灭性的;摧毁性的
[5]flirt v.(with)对……稍加考虑;对……不在意
[6]hanky-panky n.诡计;邪门歪道
[7]cram v.&n.填塞;填鸭式地教学
[8]eke v.竭力维持;增加,弥补不足
[9]buckle v.屈服;崩溃
①Nor is this a f________ process.(招生程序也毫不容情)
②the winner becomes the king, the loser becomes the b________(胜者为王,败者为寇)
③Few see much hope for d_______ change anytime soon(几乎无人认为巨大的变革有望很快来临)
④an a________ viewed as fairer and more democratic(这种方法当时被认为更加公平和民主)
⑤Without an o________ standard(没有一个客观的标准)
⑥rob students of their y_______(使他们失去朝气)
⑦suffered from their own version of pre-exam a________(也患有考前焦虑症)
⑧with exam s_______ cited as a significant cause(而考试压力据称是自杀的一大原因)
⑨through more f________ enrollment systems(通过更灵活的录取制度)
①forgiving ②bandit ③dramatic ④approach ⑤objective ⑥youth ⑦anxiety ⑧stress ⑨flexible
A. They don't make allowances if you don't test well.
B. By the time the Cultural Revolution ended, China was back to an all-or-nothing exam system.
C. Although few see any dramatic shifts in China's exam system anytime soon, some expect incremental change over the next decade.
【美国《洛杉矶时报》6月1 8日报道】题:中国的高考使人们为升入大学作更好的准备
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